Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.

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Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. But as any good philoso- pher, he is also a scientist in the sense that empirically ascertained facts serve him as the final criteria for the adequacy of general con- cepts or for the validity of general suppositions.

However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. Relations among states can vary in a wide spectrum from the extreme arold total enmity of two belligerents in a fight to the finish to the extreme of amity when two states let down their guards com- pletely, as have the United States and Canada. It should be added, however, that even arnole foreign policy were directed predominantly toward a single goal, such a goal would not monopolize the entire activity of states, except in the extreme emergency of a war.

To ask other readers questions about Discord and Collaborationplease sign up. Percy Corbett, for instance, points out that “for democratic purposes it seems worthwhile to insist that the prime object of foreign policy.

The real question is whether internal and external pressures are strong enough everywhere and at all times to trans- form the actors into something like automatons lacking all freedom of choice. The actors discorrd international politics — Amity and enmity among nations — The determinants of foreign policy — Statesmanship and moral choice — The goals of foreign policy — The pole of power and the pole of indifference — Power and influence: To make things more complicated, what constitutes a means or intermediate goal in one context may be a remote if not ultimate goal in another, with specific objectives changing places from one instance to another.

Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics

Inimical confrontation on any level involves poten- tial escalation to higher levels, and ultimately to the level of general war.

Wnd case of what may turn out often to be excessive zeal for a milieu goal takes the form of advice to wealthy countries to concentrate on lessening mass poverty and economic maldistribution throughout the world. East Dane Designer Men’s Fashion. Return to Book Page.


The new postcolonial states collaboratiom another illustration of differences in outlook among different actors. Even such factors as propinquity and spatial distance, a major subject of geopolitics, operate in many places creating opportunities for friendship or fric- tion among groups and institutions of various kinds.

Starting at one pole, one can postulate a situation in which all actors are entirely satisfied with the established state of international affairs, and are content, therefore, to concern themselves exclusively with domestic matters. Because coercion as a substitute for diplomatic persuasion has little place among allies, “amical diplomacy” directed at the prevention or resolution of discrod conflict becomes particularly important here.

If this should ever occur if, for example, a Communist International could per- suade a state’s soldiers and workers to refuse obedience to their own national government the nation-state in question would prove an empty shell when put to the test of war. After all, factors external to the actor can become determinants only as they affect the mind, heart, and will of the decision-maker. Environmental factors, then, operate through a prism, represented by the personal traits of the actor, that may deflect or distort, trans- form or reflect, these environmental factors in a variety of ways, depending on the internal structure of the prism.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics. (Book, ) []

The wollfers approach, while able to render important and indispensable services to a comprehensive wokfers of international politics, cannot do justice to arnkld the essential events that fill the international arena. Where external defense rather than economic co-operation or the pacific settlement of disputes among members of the group annd the essential aim as in an alliance, any diminution of the external threat or of the will to meet it will tend to undermine cohesion and render futile any attempts to save the alliance by inward-directed “diver- sions.

Preview — Discord and Collaboration by Arnold Wolfers. An Introduction to the Study of International Relations. Some of the neutralist countries may learn in time that vociferous attacks on “imperialist America” are not conducive to cordial relations with the United States! Isam Alzubydy marked it as to-read Sep 25, If, on the other hand, one sees only the mass of individual human beings of whom mankind is composed, the power game of states tends to appear as an inhuman interference with the lives of ordinary people.

Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.

Similarly, efforts to promote international law or to establish international organizations, undertaken consistently by many nations, are addressed to the collwboration in which nations operate and indeed such efforts make sense only if nations have reason to concern themselves with things other than their own possessions.


Deci- sions can be altered either by relieving these pulls and pressures or by setting up counterpulls and counterpressures. They will become goals only if the decision is reached that some national effort involving sacrifices, or the risk of sacrifices, is to be made for their realization.

As long as men identify themselves with their nation and cling to such national possessions as sovereign independence, territorial integrity, and national security, the establishment of harmonious private relations across national borders will have little impact on the course of international political events and encounters.

On whatever level the inimical confrontation takes place, it is bound to have far-reaching conse- quences both for the nations directly involved and for the other members of the multistate system. As a result, people who think exclusively in terms of private Individuals and who experience harmonious rela- tionships with citizens of “hostile” countries are inclined to see nothing but unhappy misunderstanding, if not evil, in the way gov- ernments act toward one another.

If they were, the political scientist would have to leave the field to the psychologist. While it would be dangerous for theorists to divert their primary attention from the nation-state and multistate systems which continue to occupy most of the stage of contemporary world politics, theory remains inadequate if it is unable to include such phenomena as overlapping authorities, split loyalties, and divided sovereignty, which were pre-eminent characteristics of medieval actors.

There is one difference, however: As a matter of fact, if one can criticize some recent studies it is not because they fail to take account of change but be- cause they exaggerate its impact to the point of loosing sight of the aspects of continuity and of successful resistance to change that are equally conspicuous in our day.

Therefore, state interests are indeed human interests in fact, the chief source of political motiva- tion today.