Grounded in naturally-occurring language data and drawing on findings from linguistic pragmatics and social psychology, Jonathan Culpeper. Politeness and Impoliteness Jonathan Culpeper (Lancaster University) 1. Introduction Thirty or so years ago politeness was a specialist, even somewhat. Impoliteness strategies. Jonathan Culpeper. Uploaded by. Jonathan Culpeper. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download the .

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Presumably, it relates to an abuse of power, a lack of deference, but neither power nor deference are well described in the classic politeness theories.

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Call the other names] Avoiding or ignoring someone. With respect to the development of sociolinguistics, we have seen a impolitenesd least partial shift away from the Labovian variationist model. Holtgravesfor instance, found that knowing that a speaker was of high status was enough to prime a directive interpretation, in advance of any remark having been actually made see also Ervin-Tripp et al.

They do not, however, attempt to apply this formula in a quantitative analysis of face threat see section 2. Human Communication Research 25 2: There are also some echoes of politic behaviour relating as it does to social routines. Regarding combinations of variables, Brown and Levinson assume that the effects of power, distance and rank on the perceived impolteness of face threat are independent of each other and additive; that is to say, each variable would have the same effect regardless of the other variables.

It is a sugaring of the pill technique. The idea is that the general appreciation of the hearer’s wants will serve to counterbalance the specific imposition.

So, if the dinner were a formal invitation, please would more likely be used. This kind of politeness is labelled “anticipated politeness” by Frasercited in Terkourafi The FTA is performed “in the most direct, clear, unambiguous and concise way possible” Brown and Levinson Brown and Levinson admit that they “may have been in error to set up culpsper three super- strategies, positive politeness, negative politeness, and off record, as ranked unidimensionally to achieve mutual exclusivity” However, in order to avoid upset i.


Fraser and Nolan, It is a softening of the blow technique. Can impolitwness language be creative? Also, they include impolite behaviour within the scope of relational work, whilst avoiding presenting it as a simple dichotomy with politeness. Southwest Impoligeness of Linguistics 17 2: Account Options Sign in. Unpackaging their bases and interrelationships.

Leichty, Greg, and James Applegate Social cognitive and situational influences on the use of face-saving persuasive strategies. Negotiating norms of linguistic behaviour. A framework that moves beyond a focus on the individual’s strategic choice in redressing FTAs cf.

The other is that some works claim a stake in more than one approach; the groups are not mutually exclusive. In my data, by far the most frequent impolite formulae type are insults.


One is that he offers little guidance on the application of the maxims, with the exception of the Tact maxim. Often, such situations are characterised by a huge power imbalance, as might be the case in army recruit training. Mao, LuMing Robert Beyond politeness theory: Lim, Tae-Seop and John W. It would do us both good. A framework for analysis. He reveals, for example, the emotional consequences of impoliteness, how it shapes and is shaped by contexts, and how it is sometimes institutionalised.

Positive face impositions can be ranked according impolietness the amount of “pain” suffered by the other, based on the discrepancy between the other’s self-image and that presented in the FTA.

Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence – Jonathan Culpeper – Google Books

Escandell-Vidal ; Jary ; Terkourafi ; Watts These different definitions of politeness have largely evolved as a consequence of different agendas. This may also partly be the reason why some of their apparently discursive politeness analyses do not always seem to pursue the discursive agenda to the full. Thus, at one end we have bald on record and at the other end we have off record or even avoiding the face threatening act altogetherand in between we have negative and positive politeness.


In Watts’s and Locher’s view, politeness is associated with a marked surplus of relational work. Rapport enhancement tallies with Leech’s a accommodation of acts that simply enhance politeness, perhaps to strengthen friendship. Call the other names] Embarrass or insult others. Briefly stated, [the socio-cultural view] assumes that each society has a particular set of social impoliteenss consisting of more or less explicit rules that prescribe a certain behavior, a state of affairs, or a way of thinking in context.

It has been used to account for politeness by a number of scholars e. What is articulated here is generally culpepet more socio-cultural view of politeness a few alternative models also attend to core aspects of pragmatic theory in their proposals.

New insights for old concepts Journal of Pragmatics 35 However, to be fair to the key practitioners of discursive politeness approach, such as Richard Watts and Miriam Locher, and returning to a point made in the previous section, there is no prohibition on using a conceptual apparatus of the politeness2 kind. This is the final draft submitted, but it may have very minor errors and infelicities. If they simply accept the compliment, they may sound rather impoliyeness, but if they simply reject it, they may offend the person who made it.

Consequently, they argue for distinct terminology and definitions, as well as careful monitoring see also, Eelen Thomas summarises the research agenda of scholars like the above engaged in the study of pragmatic politeness: Grice and Speech Act Theory e.