MACKINDER THEORY OF HEARTLAND PDF


It is battle between land power and sea power which is going to lead the world continents by one. What is Heartland theory? This theory explains,greatest wealth. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: Mackinder gave this theory in This theory regards political history as a continuous struggle between land and sea powers. The final tradition informing geopolitical thought in Russia today is the celebrated “Heartland” theory of the British geographer and statesman. Halford Mackinder.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Halford stated that the Heartland was made up of the territory originally occupied by the Russian Empire and by the Soviet Union soon after that except for the Kamchatka Peninsula. According to the theory, the core of global influence lies in what is known as the Heartland, a region of the world situated in Eurasia due to its sheer size, a wealth of resources, and a high population.

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if Mackinder held that effective political domination of the Heartland by a single power had been unattainable in the past because:. The Heartland’s size and central position made it the key to controlling the World-Island.

Mackinder’s Heartland was od area then ruled by the Russian Empire and after that by the Soviet Unionminus the Kamchatka Peninsula region, which is located in the easternmost part of Russia, near the Aleutian Islands and Kurile islands.

Mackinder saw it as a high point of communication system capable of uniting the whole Heartland into a cohesive unit. This concept is an analysis of the political pattern of the world and includes predictions based on this analysis.

Only countries in Eastern Europe were seen as potential candidates of launching a successful invasion in the Heartland. Mackinder gave this theory in This article or section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Halford Mackinder was a 20th-century geopolitical mackinedr who is attributed for writing the Heartland Theory.

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However, the roles of both the Intermediate Region and the Heartland are regarded by their respective authors as being pivotal in the shaping of world history. The other landmasses would follow later. China needed to first emerge as the largest economy in Asia-Europe, before it eventually surpasses the United States as the global superpower, fulfilling what Mackinder stated: November Learn how and when od remove this template message.

What is the Heartland Theory?

The Heartland or pivot area could have become the focus of power if either Russia had united with Germany or Russia had been overthrown by China and Japan. The Heartland Theory is seen by critics as impractical in a modern perspective.

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained!

However, the Heartland has been under Russian authority for hundreds of years and so to capture the Heartland, countries needed to prevent the expansion of Russian influence in the Heartland at the very least. This Heartland was perceived as the greatest natural fortress on earth surrounded on all sides by geographical barriers. Maclinder, Oxus, Jaxartes or into the icy sea e.

It had rugged mountains of Lena Land in the north-east; in the east it had the Altai, Tienshan mountains across which lie the wastelands of Mongolia and Sinkiang; in the south it had Hindukush ranges and the plateau of Afghanistan and Iran; in the south-west, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea lie the Caucasus and the plateau of Armenia; in the west, the Heartland was surrounded by the Carpathian mountains; in the north-west oc the Heartlanf Sea and the wastes of Lappland; in the north lies the Arctic Ocean.

The Geographical Pivot of History

Signs of Mackinder’s Heartland Theory can be found in the works of geopolitician Dimitri Kitsikisparticularly in his ” Intermediate Region ” model. During the time of the writing of the Heartland Theory, most of East Europe and Russia did not have an inch of road or railway network, making the belief of conquering the Heartland logistically impossible.

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Mackinder did not consider the effect of modern technology on his theory. Learn how and when to remove these template messages.

For instance, the writer claimed that the existing natural barriers would protect the Heartland from foreign invasion. The Heartland is inaccessible from sea as all the rivers either drain inland e.

The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia

One major drawback of this theory is its inability to make allowances for the technological advances. Meaning and Its Structure. His map Mercator projection of the thoery enclosed within an ellipse exaggerated the extent of the Arctic Ocean. The combined empire’s large East Asian coastline would also provide the potential for it to become a major sea power.

The islands heartlsnd Japan and the British Isles were categorized under the offshore islands. Its simplicity and boldness have been achieved at the cost of accuracy regarding the historical and the geographical details.

Mackinder’s Heartland Theory – Explained!

Retrieved from ” https: Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. Mackinder identified the geopolitical nightmare that was to haunt the world’s two sea heaetland during the first half of the twentieth century— Great Britain and, later the United States.

Mackinder believed that countries from other world regions the offshore islands and the outlying islands were hindered from making a successful invasion in the Heartland by the geographical barriers surrounding the Heartland the Carpathian Mackineer to the west, the Hindukush Ranges to the South, and the Altai to the east and the Baltic Sea to the north.